Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Brahman Is The Highest And Most Supreme Religion Essay Brahman is the highest and most supreme of all Hindu gods. It is the transcendent, immanent, infinite, unchanging, eternal reality. The Divine Ground that sums up all the being, space, time energy, matter and all within and beyond this universe. Brahams nature is described as impersonal, personal and transpersonal. Brahman, conceived from the Hindu verb brh, means infinity and greatness. Brahman was born from Brahma who is the creator, the source and the seed of all that is in this world. Brahman, due to his functions as the creator of all, is not allowed to have a lot of devotees and is thus unpopular among the Hindu pantheon since his wok demands attention, concentration and introversion. As there is no more creation, he lost his importance to other gods; Vishnu and Siva, of the Hindu trinity. He is said to be father of Manu, from whom all Hindus descended from. Brahman is the universal substrate or the absolute reality and should not be confused with Brahma, god and the creator. T hey say that Brahman cannot be known through material means, and we cannot be made to be conscious of it as he is our very own being and consciousness. Atman on the other hand refers to the true self of a person. Philosophically it is the soul either individually or globally. It could also b defined as the source o all the individual souls. It is the indistinguishable, unchanging and eternal essence. According to Hinduism, any mortal existence has an immortal aspect and this is always hidden within every created object and this includes man. Atman provides experience of the pleasures and pain of earthly life thus giving us reason to live and imparts divine possibilities and qualities. Atman being the silent partner and dweller within us and all our experiences and deeds, can only be felt when no other sensory activities impact the mind. This is attained through yoga. In Buddhism however, the cause of misery is ignorance which is a prime consequence of the belief that there exists an atman that is unchanging. Our soul or atman is identifiable readily with Brahmans greater soul. Buddhism In Buddhism, Anatta is the selfless idea of non-self. It means that everything perceived is not in the I or mine sense and thus one should not cling on to. It encourages people o develop a sense of willingness to let go at any time as these perceived objects become unnecessary to ones self. The rebirth doctrine should be well differentiated from the reincarnation theory which refers to the soul transmigration and its material rebirth invariable. Buddhism does not recognize the existence of an eternal or unchanging soul that emanates from divine essence. It is in sharp contrast to Hinduisms self awareness ideology of atman. According to Buddhism there is nothing that is fixed or permanent in our existence. Everything is subject to destruction and decay. No man should identify himself with any form or name but rather be aware of the continuous change process of becoming. In Japanese Buddhism, Satori means enlightenment. It is a surge o sudden individual enlightenment and/or awareness. It is coined from the Zen Buddhist culture and considered as the embarkation or earlier step towards nirvana. Satori can and is often juxtaposed to the term kensho meaning viewing ones nature and character. Satori however, is a deeper spiritual state than kensho. Being an intuitive experience, It has been described as a situation like waking up one day to find yourself with an extra pair of arms to later learn how to use them. Satori is commonly attained from personal experiences by the traditional use of koans like the collection found in the Gateless Gate. They are theoretical puzzles students use in assistance of Satori realization. It does not occur to individuals but rather all concept realization individuals included therein. The Zen Buddhist student need to prepare their minds first with rigorous study with koans and then meditation which clears their minds from all attachments to the physical existence. In many Japanese folktales, Satori was referred to as a mountain dwelling creature with the rare ability to read the human mind and thoughts. Thus the only way to defeat a Satori was to empty ones mind completely. This way it will run in fear, leave due to boredom or die. Confucianism Confucianism put much emphasis on filial piety. I is on of the most important virtues and should be held highly. It is defined as the respect for ones parents and ancestors. The Classic of Xiao, a Confucian book written during the 400 B.C. period in a conversation between Zeng Shen, a student and Confucius. Filial piety, in Chinese culture, is the fist and foremost virtue. These religious traditions were until recent years, been enforced by law at times. It is a form of ancestral worship and its avoidance was punishable by law. This virtue should be shown to both the dead and the living alike and is a respect that has over the years bee extended to cover other five forms; friend to friend, elder brother to younger brother, husband to wife, father to son and ruler to ruled. The respect for elders was held in high reverence in all these forms of relationships and the living stood as sons of the dead. This filial piety idea adversely influenced the legal system in china. The book of fil ial piety written in the third century is the major source of filial piety importance and it was attributed to Confucius as well as hi son. Li is a Chinese word that is extensively used in Confucianism. It meaning is rather vague but in most cases it is attached to the word ritual. I is just an abstract idea and not and object of definitive nature. It has also been described and translated s the morals, etiquette or customs. It is generally a collection of rules of proper and good behavior. It broadly deals with the entirely whole spectrum of the contacts and interaction with nature, material objects and other human beings. Confucius, in his discussions, encompasses diverse topics like governance, mourning, titles, drinking tea, and learning among other things. Li entails the norms of proper behavior socially taught to us by government officials, village elders or parents. The teachings encourage loyalty, god faith, righteousness, brotherliness and filial submission. The Li influence has guided public expectations and has enhanced the loyalty to the community superiors and elders. Religious impulse. Religion has always been there perhaps even longer than human beings. There was an understanding of a supernatural force showed by Neanderthals millions of years ago. The most common and weird thread among the various religions in the world is the impulse to worship a supernatural being or just generally something at that matter. Therefore, religious impulse can be defined universally as the urge to put faith in a form that is always beyond our perception and understanding. Even in our era, a time of technological and scientific advancements, a lot of people believe in the unknown. Religion therefore is the belief in supernatural powers that control our fate that is entitled to our obedience, respect and worship. In every great religion, three aspects are paramount; charity, faith and hope. These are the ethics, ritual and theology respectively. It should entail conservation of values and be a system that involves a world view, a philosophy and a code of ethics. Different religions have different characteristics however most features are similar in different religions and these are; specific rules of conduct, sense of community and family, ethics system, institutions that are well organized, supernatural belief and life after death, soul existence and sacred scriptures and writings. The factors and root causes that may lead people towards religious impulses are the fear of death and whatever is lying in wait beyond that. Also humans are a curious bunch and the mystery of their existence pushes them towards a spiritual angle. Since we are incapable of answering most of lifes questions, like the purpose of our lives and the immaterial or the spiritual part of us, it creates a belief towards religion as the best form of explanation. Finally one just feels the need of a spiritual conscience to the materialism of modern life. The nature of the divine varies in different religious settings. Hindus for example, often think of themselves as monothei sts worshiping various divine aspects and no various divinities. However, outsiders always see Hinduism as similar to faiths inclined to traditional polytheistic. Idealistic Religion Among the above religions, Confucianism is the most appealing while I find Hinduism the least appealing. Hinduism consists of so many beliefs with a lot of intertwined gods and goddesses. The caste system of classes is also unrealistic as all human bins should be equal and receive equal opportunities. For a very long time his has bee the factor that has served most disservice to he Hindu religion. The idea of recognizing inequalities based on the lineage, family and birth and stating it as the will of god is alarming. Though Confucianism has shortcomings as well, its ethics and morals have positive influence on the society as a whole. The teachings of Li and filial piety are greatly important especially to children growing up. It is common sense to respect and obey ones elders and putting that into law is a great way of ensuring a society with good and polite morals. It involved action internalization allowing one to be open to the sensations panoply of the experience. It maintains a healthy selflessness practices to oneself and as an example set to others. Personal approaches as well as the approaches of the at large demonstrates how these values are utilized in everything, the good and the bad, the detailed and the broad, the formlessness and the form. The rituals and practices in Confucianism are dynamic. These practices have been modified and revised in accordance to emerging societal beliefs. Though the practices are bound to change, the fundamental ideology remains the core of the religious beliefs.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Socially Constructed Childhood Sociologists believe that children are not natural in society, that they do not behave naturally but that society has made children act as they do, and that there parents teach them how to act and make their personality for them at an early age. However childhood 'differs enormously according to time and place' so Philippe Aries believes. Children are treated differently to each other in different parts of the world, for example in India when a girl is 16-17 years old she is forced into an arranged marriage by which her parents arrange. That type of responsibility on a girl of that age is a lot, and most Indian girls refuse and end up running away from home or worse still killing themselves, but in their culture at that age they are seen as adults. Also in China girls are made to bind there feet up at an early age so that there feet do not grow any bigger. Some people may see this as a form of child abuse, but in China, that is what is expected of them. So there are quite a lot of differences in the upbringing of children. Not every child will turn out the same, all children will vary and that is to the way that they are bought up by there parents. It is not just the different cultures, which varies, but also the different social classes have a different way of bringing up children. The upper social class tend to spoil their children to a certain extent because they can with all the money that they have. This socially constructs the child to grow up with a spoilt nature, and would maybe affect the rest of his life because he will believe that he can get whatever he wants. This goes for 'designer babies... ...operly. All this is bringing out paedophilia and it teaches girls to be precautious because of the way they are being made to dress sexily at such an early age. Also it encourages stripping at an early age. In one of the routines that the young children have to do is they have to take of layers of their clothes in a sexy and perfectly timed manor to show off what they are wearing underneath. This shouldn't be forced upon young children because they will grow up with attitude problems all because the parents expecting too much from them. This idea of 'painted babies' is an obsessive way in which parents put pressure and abuse on their children. The way that they get the children to dress and look isn't natural for them at all, and this is a final example of how childhood is gradually disappearing in society today.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
If I had to make a choice between working for a Manager and working for a Leader, I would, first of all, consider working environment. If business is stable and the company needs mostly organizational administration, then a Manager can be preferable type of the superior. Managers are perfect in organizing people to achieve the goals. They are directing the work of their subordinates according to the plans, which are already established by someone else. Managers are great in performing routine activities, as well as supervising and controlling. Managers are usually the bosses, who appreciate strict order and discipline at work, and I suppose, this is very important for successful performance. But frequently business is dynamic and rapidly developing environment, which requires making a lot of risky decisions and looking for new directions all the time. In such situation, I think, it would be preferable to work for a Leader. Unlike the Managers, the Leaders know how to set up goals, motivate the employees for achieving these goals and initiate changes. Leaders can inspire their subordinates for personal improvement, support them, help them to find own place in the sun and to break a deadlock. Finally, the subordinates became the followers, who trust and understand their Leader and are ready to do the right thing. Therefore, working for a Leader brings more job satisfaction, favors personal development and can be a good challenge for ambitious employees. Bibliography: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Vikesland, G. (n.d.). Are You a Manager or a Leader? Employer-Employee. Online Information Portal. Retrieved March 9, 2007, from .
Friday, January 3, 2020
Cherchez la femme is an expression that does not translate well from French to English. Literally, this phrase translates as look for the woman. Its meaning in French, though, is quite a bit more nuanced. English Meaning In English, this expression actually means the same problem as ever, similar to the expression, go figure. However, that is not the meaning native French speakers are conveying when they use the phrase, which is also often misspelled as Churchy la femme. French Meaning The original meaning is much more sexist than its literal translation. The expression comes from the 1854 novel The Mohicans of Paris by Alexandre Dumas, in which he stated: Cherchez la femme, pardieu! Cherchez la femme! The phraseÃ¢â¬âwhich translates as Seek the woman, by God (or certainly)! Seek the woman!Ã¢â¬âis repeated several times in the novel. The French meaning implies that no matter what the problem may be, a woman is often the cause. Look for the mistress, jealous wife, or angry lover: A woman is at the root of each problem. You might use the phrase in French as follows: Je nai plus dargent. I no longer have money.Cherchez la femme. Look for the woman. (Your wife must have spent it all.) Another French Phrase to Use With Caution Beware of other French phrases that are commonly used by EnglishÃ speakers, including Voulez-vous coucher avec moi, ce soir Do you want to sleep (make love) with me tonight? As with Cherchez la femme, they may be misused and offensive.